Saturday, March 14, 2020
Illegal Immigration Problem essays Since the New World was first discovered, there has been an enormous influx of people from various parts of the world and differing cultures who have wished to resettle in what is now the United States. Of course, these immigrants have historically arrived in the United States in waves, with different portions of the globe and different ethnicities being represented in each individual wave. Yet, one characteristic that has remained constant over the history of immigration in the United States is the general apprehensiveness with which new immigrants have been welcomed by the established culture and society. Although the issue of immigration amnesty has been debated for centuries, it still remains one of the most hotly contested and influential topics in modern public debate. The current wave of immigrants is largely represented by people from Mexico, along with several other Central American nations. Since, unlike in the past, these immigrants are capable of entering the United States over land, a significant portion of them have entered this country without the legal consent of American authorities. The arrival of these illegal immigrants has generated a number of social and economic problems, along with many cross-cultural and cross-racial tensions. According to some, the only reasonable way to address these problems is to crack-down on illegal immigration and stop it at its source. According to others, allowing illegal immigrants amnesty is the appropriate way to handle the social problems that their illegal status has created. Overall, many of the problems that have been introduced to the fabric of American life and the United States economy are a direct result of the necessarily covert lives illegal immigrants are forced to live. No one disputes that the existence of so many illegal immigrants in the United States creates a large workforce willing to work for wages far below what legal citizens are afforded by law. The qu...
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Construction and business law - Essay Example Rather it can be said that the informal sources of law does not have a strong legal validity. In case of a conflict between the common law and the formal source of law always the formal source of law gains primacy. Courts which hear civil issues like issues related to debt, contract related matters and also property related issues. It also includes succession, real estate and custody related issues. The structure of the civil courts is as follows in the base lies the sheriff court, above it the Court of Session and above everything is the House of Lords. The Criminal Courts are those which deal with the criminal cases like rape, murder, theft, forgery and adultery. The structure of the Criminal Court is different from that of the Civil Court in the sense that at the base lays the District Court, then the Sheriff Court and above all the High Court of Judiciary. A real obligation always creates a debt and in the process becomes a principal obligation. In the English law there are two types of real obligation, they are namely land and rent. On the other hand the payment which is due against the land becomes a personal obligation. On the other hand it can be said that personal obligation and the real obligation are related to each other. One produces the other. For instance if land is the real obligation then in that case the fruits and flowers produced from that piece of land becomes the personal obligation. (Langdell, 2009, p. 199). The Inner House of the Court of Session is actually the appeal court. This court is divided into the First and the Second Divisions and each of the divisions have been given equal authority. The Divisions are presided by the Lord President and the Lord Justice Clerk respectively. The Inner House hears cases from the Outer House and some other Sheriff Court and Tribunals. The Outer House on the other hand hears cases at the first instance. They generally hear commercial cases, case related to contract and also judicial review. The judges of the Outer House also hear on the Intellectual Property Rights. Thus it can be said that the Inner House of Courts has more compared to the Outer House of Courts. (Court of Session - Introduction, n.d). The European Court of Justice is the highest Court of law in the European Law and it deals with all the laws of the European Union. This Court refers to the law of the community and it deals with all kinds of cases. The European Court of Human Rights on the other hand is the highest International Court. It deals with case related to the violation of the European Convention of Human Rights. Individuals can directly apply to the European Court of Human Rights. The main aim of the Court is to protect the human rights of the individuals or the states. Thus it can be said that the major difference between the two is that the European Court of Justice deal with all kinds of law and the European Court of Human Rights only deals with human rights related issues. Question 2: A courier company promises a 24 hour delivery service.' Its customer,a web-based travel agency, orders the couriers to deliver an essential computer component from the suppliers to their premises. En route, the couriers lose the package and end up taking 72 hours to deliver a replacement. The travel agency wishes to sue the courier company for the losses it has incurred as a result of the delay in delivery of the vital component.
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Individual Argument Assignment - Research Paper Example The argument shows that God is responsible for allowing evil to exist. God has the power to stop evil by stopping the evil persons from that since there is evil in the world (Lavery & Hughes, 2008). Further, EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s argument Evil is the absence of God, who exists shows a logical argumentation. Einstein uses the logic of the darkness and light to prove his argument. Einstein insists that cold and darkness was invented by people to explain the absence of heat and light. However, God did not create darkness and cold. Similarly, evil is the absence of God in the lives of the evil persons. Consequently, God did not create evil but some individuals chose to exercise their free will to be evil by making God from their daily lives (Asheim, 2006). Furthermore, there are weaknesses in the arguments between the professor and the student, Einstein. In every rule there is always an exemption. Just because God created everything does not literally include creating evil. On the other hand, individuals commit evil by refusing to obey GodÃ¢â¬â¢s laws to be good citizens. In the Einstein statement Evil is the absence of God, who exists may not be all true. In the story of NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s Ark, God flooded the entire earth to kill the evil people of the world (Tucker, 2005). God can do something to remove the evil individuals from society. God can lend a hand to stop the evil personsÃ¢â¬â¢ acts. The use of a better premise will translate an argument to a more effective one. If the premise is erroneous, the conclusion is questionable. If the premise is logically persuasive, the conclusion is tenable (Louw, 1998). Further, the professor and Einstein could have done a better job at improving their concepts. The professor could have stated: God did not create everything in this world. The revised statement shows that persons exercise their free will to do evil acts by refusing to obey GodÃ¢â¬â¢s laws. The professor is using wrong logical reasoning. Using the same argument, God
Friday, January 31, 2020
Structural approaches to systems of signification are rooted in linguistic theory Essay Example for Free
Structural approaches to systems of signification are rooted in linguistic theory Essay A general analysis of language assists in the deconstruction of meaning as it inscribes in different types of narratives (whether verbal or non-verbal). This analysis can be divided into 4 processes. The first process is the identification of sign systems used in particular social situations. The second process is the determination of body movements, sounds, or letters that individuals use to express the sign system. For example, when an individual refer to the term Ã¢â¬ËfuneralÃ¢â¬â¢, then all individuals in a particular social group must know the proper reference to a funeral. The fourth process is called social convention. Every individual in a community or group must agree on a common set of meanings for the sign system. The fifth process is the rate by which signs changes meaning. This phenomenon is common in Western societies where words and symbols often change as a response to social, economic, and political changes. One of the leading figures of semiotics is Roland Barthes who applied the structuralist linguist theory of Saussure to the study of mythology. His research paved the way for the development of a Ã¢â¬Ëcontemporary mythology. Ã¢â¬â¢ The findings were as follows: 1) The elements involved in narratives are often objects which assume meaning that transcends beyond their aesthetic and normative value. The development of this set of meanings is often expressed in the so-called Ã¢â¬Ësecond level languageÃ¢â¬â¢; 2) Barthes also identified the so-called Ã¢â¬Ësecond order semiological systemÃ¢â¬â¢, a sign system which enables people to communicate with each other; 3) An object assumes meaning when society attaches a particular value to a place, object, and entities. However, the significance of an object, idea or place may also be ambiguous and may assume a set of meanings that may be hard to deconstruct. The ability to deconstruct meaning depends on a number of factors: 1) the complexity of the social situation, 2) the relationships of the actors involved, 3) the complexity of the general sign system used, 4) the range of possibilities, and 5) the biases of the researcher. Deconstructing meaning is a process by which an individual attempts to relate one set of meaning to another in a particular situation; that is, the repercussions of motives and intentions are always embedded in behavioral orientation. 2) Language is a system of distinct signs which correspond to distinct ideas (Saussure 1966:16). Please explain the nature of sign according to SaussureÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of language. With the publication of the Course of General Linguistics, Ferdinand de Saussure established a formal theory of language. Some of the assumptions of his theory were as follows: 1) There is a distinction between language and parole (speech). According to Saussure, language is the system of symbols in which individuals communicate. Parole refers to actual utterances. Since individuals communicate in an infinite number of utterances, it is the symbolic system which is deemed more important. In providing distinction between uttering and language, one is also separating: a) what is social from what is individualistic, and b) what is essential from what is supplemental. Saussure likened this proposition to a chess game. The chess game has rules which define the overall essence of the game. Utterances are the actual moves of the players. The rules reflect the language used in the game; 2) Languages do not produce different versions of reality; they in fact produce different realities. According to Saussure, the differences in language reflect the general differences not only in the interpretation of what is real but also the notion of what ought to be real. In short, if a language does not have a word for Ã¢â¬ËnaturalÃ¢â¬â¢ then individuals who use such language will in effect submerged in a world which is unnatural. Here, the term Ã¢â¬ËnaturalÃ¢â¬â¢ is both ambiguous and vague because individuals have no common assumptions of what is Ã¢â¬ËnaturalÃ¢â¬â¢; 3) Language is the means by which social meanings is communicated through the use of signs. A sign or a word defines the relationship between the assumed image of a set of sounds or signifiers and the actual image in an individual or groupÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness. A sign is a mediator between the assumed and the actual, between the real and the immaterial. According to Saussure, signs define the conceptual outlook of particular objects, entities, and even other ideas (Wittgenstein called this as referent idea). For example, the word Ã¢â¬ËfamilyÃ¢â¬â¢ describes both the ideal notion of a Ã¢â¬ËfamilyÃ¢â¬â¢ and the actual image of a family (reality). In short, a sign define the ideal and realistic boundary of specific ideas, objects, and entities. The bond, however, between the signifier and the signified is both arbitrary and necessary. The principle of arbitrariness is predominant when all ideas about the boundary of language are assumed to be in unity. Here, language is assumed to be a matter of social convention; that is, a general creation of collective consciousness. Hence, the set of signifiers (signs) becomes a means to describe and define the image of an object, idea, or entity. Signs become, as what philosophers of language called, an Ã¢â¬Ëarbitrary assumption of eventsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â events which are either singular or plural in orientation. Signs therefore are subject to social change Ã¢â¬â as actors periodically change the meaning and application of signs in a sign system. In some cases, the change is radical that the original symbolic meanings are radically altered. Here, the signs remained intact, but the associated meaning greatly changed. This radical change is though not separated from changes that occur in a larger social environment, for it is the social environment which is the initial source of change. Saussure defined language as both a Ã¢â¬Ësocial phenomenonÃ¢â¬â¢ and a Ã¢â¬Ëpsychological phenomenon. Ã¢â¬â¢ It is a social phenomenon because the significance of signs is dependent on social context or milieu. Social context here refers to a state of perpetual change in language over time. In fact, Saussure argued that all languages are equal in complexity. This assumption may be ambitious, but it has not without basis. Languages change because the social contexts to which they are located also change. A good example of language change is the creation of new words in many of the leading worldÃ¢â¬â¢s languages. This process of language ramification is perhaps due to the rapidly increasing communication among individuals, groups, and institutions. However, much of the newly created words are ambiguous and vague in form. Many individuals either attach multiple meanings to a word or simply fail to attach a clear cut meaning to such word. 3) Debord states: ` an earlier stage in the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s domination of social life entailed an obvious downgrading of being into having that left its stamp on all human behaviour. The present stage, which social life is completely taken over by the accumulated products of the economy, entails a generalised shift from having to appearing: all effective `having` must now derive both its immediate prestige and its ultimate raison dentre from appearances` (Debord 1994:16). Explain in your own words DebordÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis of the society of the spectacle. Much of DebordÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas of the society of the spectacle were derived from Marxian theory. According to Marxian theory: 1) Society is divided into two structures: the superstructure and the substructure. The superstructure is the set of institutions functioning in the society. The substructure is the economic system utilized by the society. There is a dialectic relationship between these two structures. Initially, the substructure influences the creation of the superstructure. The economic system determines the type of institutions that will be developed in the society. The superstructure then either reinforces or alters the substructure, depending on the needs of the society; 2) The behavior of human wants is always conspicuous. Every individual desires not only the basic needs of life but also the ideal notion of fruitful living. Here, Marxian theory suggests that human want is both arbitrary and unlimited. Individuals will strive to attain what is socially acceptable and what is necessary. Consumption is a means to Ã¢â¬ËshowÃ¢â¬â¢ that these ends are met (echoes VeblenÃ¢â¬â¢s idea on conspicuous consumption). Individuals therefore, disregarding the efficacy of moderation, engages in subtle confrontation with the sources of frustration. The end: the individual becomes more and more attuned to the affairs of the market, and subject to the whims of the ruling class Ã¢â¬â whom unconsciously is fueling individual frustration to obtain higher market value for their products. Debord expounded on the development of a modern society in which genuine social life has been displaced with its representation Ã¢â¬â that is, its image. Debord argues that the history and essence of social life can be understood as the Ã¢â¬Ëdecline of being into having, and having into merely appearing. Ã¢â¬â¢ Debord notes that this condition of human life is the event in which commodity completely colonized the virtue of social life Ã¢â¬â an unconscious process of colonization of the ideal notion of life. The term Ã¢â¬ËspectacleÃ¢â¬â¢ connotes a social system characterized by the affluence of advance capitalism, the mass media, and capitalist led governments. The spectacle is the general opposite image of society in which the relationship between commodities have, in general, displaced the relationships between people. The worship of the commodity becomes not just a rule but the aspiration of social life. In the society of the spectacle, the quality of life is poor, human perceptions greatly altered by both the market and mass media, and a general degradation of genuine knowledge. Knowledge becomes a tool for distorting reality Ã¢â¬â obstructing the true essence of the past, and promising a bright future of mass consumption and happiness. Here, individuals becomes attune to the calls of the promise and prevent themselves from realizing that such Ã¢â¬ËspectacleÃ¢â¬â¢ is only illusory Ã¢â¬â that the society of spectacle is only a moment in history which can be overturned by collective action. The responsibility therefore of the Ã¢â¬ËdruggedÃ¢â¬â¢ individual is to free himself from the chains of spectacular images through radical action. This radical action will restore the beauty and essence of social life Ã¢â¬â life defined not by the relations between commodities but by the relations between individuals. 4) Basing yourself on first Levi-Strauss and then Barthess analyses, describe how myths function as types of narratives that carry a message. Levi-Strauss applied the structural linguistics of Saussure to the analysis of family. Traditionally, the family is seen as the fundamental object of analysis and as a self-contained unit consisting typically of a husband, wife, and children (offspring). Levi-Strauss argued that families only acquire determinate identities through relations among units. Levi-Strauss fundamentally altered the classical view of anthropology, putting the secondary family members first and analyzing the relationships among units instead of the units themselves. Levi-StraussÃ¢â¬â¢ application of structural linguistics is also evident in his work Mythologiques, a series of work on myths and legends. According to Levi-Strauss, myths are a type of speech in which a symbolic system could be discovered. This theory attempted to explain the similarities of myths across cultures. Levi-Strauss argued that there is no such thing as Ã¢â¬Ësingular authentic version of a mythÃ¢â¬â¢ rather a general manifestation of the same language. In order to understand this language, the fundamental units of myth, the mytheme, must be examined. To find the mythemes, Levi-Strauss deconstructed each version of a myth into a set of sentences, consisting generally of a relation between a function and a subject. Sentences with the same function and subject were given the same number. Both Levi-Strauss and Barthess analysis of myths revealed striking results. First, the coagulation of myths is a message of a common language. Second, the myth itself not only expressed social, economic, and political values, but also the means in which people throughout the ages communicate. Third, binary opposition is a common characteristic of language Ã¢â¬â that is, people communicate through binary opposites. And lastly, myths function as a kind of lingual illusion which drives individual to act on the basis of the myth itself (the myth is a self-sufficient source of action). Here, the degree of which an individual communicates the myth to another individual is related to the preponderance of a myth. Hence, the survival of a myth depends on the way and degree to which it is communicated.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
The financial crisis that erupted in Asia in mid-1997 has led to sharp declines in the currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices of a number of Asian countries. It is hard to understand what these declines will actually do to the world market. This decline is expected to halve the rate of world growth in 1998 from the four percent that was projected pre-crisis to an estimated outcome of about 2 percent. The countries that are included in the East Asian crisis, known as "Tiger" economies, are Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. For these countries to participate effectively in the exchange of goods, services, and assets, an international monetary system is needed to facilitate economic transactions. To be effective in facilitating movement in goods, services, and assets, a monetary system most importantly requires an efficient balance of payments adjustment mechanism so that deficits and surpluses are not prolonged but are eliminated with relative ease in a reasonably short time period. The Asian crisis of recent falls into this category of inefficient balance of payments facilitated by depreciation of its currency. By competitively depreciating its currencies, Asia is exporting its deflation, its overcapacity and its lack of growth to the West, particularly to the US. History The past ten or fifteen years have seen an unprecedented expansion in the extent to which the countries of the world are tied ...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
However, he sees people outside and discovers the HeadmanÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, Marimuthu hanging a woman, at which he is traumatised. The next day, the body has been taken down and we learn that it is MarimuthuÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. However, Marimuthu is pretending that his wife has commited suicide. Anil tells the village & the Headman that he saw Marimuthu kill the woman and the Headman goes off to talk to AnilÃ¢â¬â¢s father about him. In the next section, we learn that Anil is being sent to school (a great opportunity) but it is so that the Headman can cover up his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s actions as a murderer. At the end, both father & son explore their decisions and whether they made the right/wrong choice given the consequences. The last scene shows the Headman & his brother, the Headman smiling at his brother and the brother showing relief that they got away with it. Form Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Omniscient narrator Ã¢â¬â allows us to learn the feelings of each of the characters Ã¢â¬â an overview of the story. Short story bildungsroman: shows the character growing up/maturing when he learns the nature of good/evil and something about morality, Ã¢â¬Å"I will never forget this town and the sin that it buries today. As a child, we believe in right & wrong and that sins are punished. However, he learns that there is not always justice in the world, and in fact sin is metaphorically buried. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Epiphany: as above: Ã¢â¬Å"I will never forget this town and the sin that it buries today. Ã¢â¬ (line 216. ) Structure Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lines 93-95- powerful visual- cinematic description of the body shocks us- climax shocking so early in the story. Lines 41- 60- the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s fears are presented: father, fear of the dark, mosquito, ghosts- writer uses one word lines to reflect the tension, Ã¢â¬ËThey. Peyi. Pesase. Ghosts. Ã¢â¬â¢- also Ã¢â¬ËDare he? Ã¢â¬â¢- the omniscient narrator draws us into AnilÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Lines 159-160- the second section is used to describe the aftermath where Anil finds himself accusing the murderer, Ã¢â¬ËYou killed her. Ã¢â¬â¢ We are left on a cliff-hanger as we wonder what the consequences will be, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦ about this son of yours. Ã¢â¬â¢ See epiphany is form. Lines 198-202- we are now given RagunathanÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective and the writer presents his confused shame as Anil is sent away. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Language Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lines 1-14 (opening paragraph): heat is emphasised to create a claustrophobic and confined setting, Ã¢â¬Ëhot, swelteringÃ¢â¬â¢- contrasts with the image of the star Anil watches, Ã¢â¬Ëa small star shoneÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬â¢ as his dreams set him apart (omniscient narrator allows us to see AnilÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective and draws us to him. ) Lines 21-31- physical details of mother reinforce the heat and discomfort/pain of the setting and their lives, Ã¢â¬Ëwet patchÃ¢â¬ ¦ layers of fatÃ¢â¬â¢- a childÃ¢â¬â¢s view amuses us Ã¢â¬ËWheeeÃ¢â¬ ¦ the fly slid downÃ¢â¬â¢ but is mixed with the accepted pain/violence/abuse Ã¢â¬Ëthe bruiseÃ¢â¬ ¦where AppaÃ¢â¬ ¦ had hit her. Ã¢â¬â¢ Lines 69- 74- symbolism of the tree- from childish view Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦ a tree that ate little children. Ã¢â¬â¢ To shocking reality Ã¢â¬ËThey were hanging a woman. Lines 222- end- the worm simile used to describe how Marimuthu views the train/the truth within Anil reflects the relief he feels at having escaped justice- the heat of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s injustice distorts the train and makes the image sinister, but even more sinister to the reader is the Ã¢â¬Ëshadow of a smileÃ¢â¬â¢ which hints that all is under control again. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ How to use PETER for analysis: P- The writer uses a star at the beginning of the story and after the climax of the murder to highlight AnilÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence and isolation, E- Ã¢â¬Ësilencing the sobs that wracked his little body, as a star shimmered above. Ã¢â¬â¢ T- The repeated symbolism of the star as well as the alliteration of Ã¢â¬Ësilencing the sobsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëstar shimmeredÃ¢â¬â¢ E- draws our attention to his vulnerability and perhaps loss of innocence as he witnesses such a crime. R- We cannot help but feel pity for AnilÃ¢â¬â¢s character as we share his pain and terror. O- create your own other interpretation here.
Monday, January 6, 2020
In the WachowskiÃ¢â¬â¢s action film Ã¢â¬Å"The MatrixÃ¢â¬ , many different philosophical ideas and theories are explored, including the idea of Free Will versus Determinism. The movieÃ¢â¬â¢s main character Ã¢â¬Å"NeoÃ¢â¬ (Portrayed by Keanu Reeves) is labelled as Ã¢â¬Å"The OneÃ¢â¬ , and is used as a catalyst to represent these philosophical ideas. The Oracle is used as a representation of Determinism, whilst Neo is used as a symbol for Free Will. These representations in turn relate to thefamous philosophical theories ofby philosophers including William James and Arthur Schopenhauer. In The Matrix, Thomas Anderson is any ordinary man living in what he perceives as the Ã¢â¬Å"real worldÃ¢â¬ . What he comes to find, is the world is merely a dream-like computer simulation, and every person around him is just asleep believing what they see is real. Anderson meets Morpheus, who believes it has been prophesied that his coming would hail the destruction of the Matrix, end the war; bring freedom to our people.(Matrix Wiki, 2016). Anderson will be the one to free everyone from the Matrix, and find ultimate freedom. Immediately, the ideas of free will versus determinism are demonstrated as Morpheus has been searching for Neo for all his life, and it was prophesied he will come to exist, which becomes true. In the film, the Oracle is used as a representation of Hard Determinism. The Oracle s powers of precognition appear amazingly accurate, even knowing that Neo was about to knock over a vase in her kitchen. She leaves Neo inShow MoreRelatedThe Matrix, By Keanu Reeves1438 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand the Internet were getting popular, the Wachowski brothers decided to make a movie to inform the world of the dangers of letting technology control our lives. 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